What Is Vindictive Narcissism And How Can You Cope? (2023)

The vindictive character. The revenge plan. The lack of remorse and empathy. This is how narcissistic personality disorder is often and inaccurately portrayed in pop culture.

A highly stigmatized and misunderstood condition, narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) is never a personal choice.

Instead, it’s a complex mental health condition that goes beyond a few stereotypical behaviors or attitudes.

Can a person with narcissistic personality be vindictive? Yes. However, vindictiveness isn’t an official symptom of the disorder, nor is it exclusive of people living with mental health conditions.

Only a mental health professional can accurately diagnose narcissistic personality disorder.

NPD affects around 5.3% percent of the U.S. population. It’s more common in males.

A grandiose sense of self, an intense craving for admiration and recognition, and fantasies of unlimited success are just three of nine narcissistic traits.

As with many other mental health conditions, not everyone experiences the same symptoms of NPD or with the same intensity. In this sense, narcissistic personality can be thought of as a spectrum.

In fact, everyone can act out grandiosity and other aspects of narcissism in certain situations. This doesn’t mean they live with the disorder.

The difference between narcissism as a personality trait and NPD as a mental health condition is how persistently it shows over time and across all situations.

“We all have exaggerated when telling a story out of excitement,” explains Nicholas Hardy, a psychotherapist in Texas. “But someone who is narcissistic constantly exaggerates their stories and discusses their achievements with an aura of overinflated importance — to the point that they may become defensive when questioned or when someone challenges their idea of superiority.”

In some cases, someone may present with more symptoms of narcissistic personality or experience them in a more intense way.

When this is the case, some experts call it “extreme narcissism.”

Narcissism is not a personal decision.

Most people with the condition aren’t even aware of their symptoms and how they may affect their relationships. They may, however, experience these symptoms intensely and pervasively.

Many experts refer to extreme narcissism as when narcissistic personality symptoms become so persistent and intense that they may begin to have an even greater impact on the self and relationships.

“There are always varying levels of a disorder,” Hardy says. While there may not be a clinical distinction, Hardy explains everyone experiences narcissistic personality differently.

(Video) How to Cope With a Vindictive Narcissist?

“In many ways, they are incapable of seeing outside their own false beliefs and have an ‘at all costs’ mentality,” Hardy adds. “Even when it’s not about them, they often create scenarios that redirect others’ attention.”

There’s also a difference between overt and covert narcissism: Some people with narcissistic personality might act very dominantly and with a sense of superiority (overt narcissism), while others may have the same inner beliefs but act these out in more subtle ways (covert narcissism).

In general, someone who is vindictive might tend to hold grudges and “get back at you” when they feel you’ve wronged them in some way.

Everyone can act in vindictive ways in some situations, and not everyone who does lives with a personality disorder.

In the same way, not everyone with narcissistic personality acts vindictively.

Vindictive narcissism isn’t a formal diagnosis. “Vindictive” refers more to how someone with the disorder may act in some situations.

A vindictive behavior in someone with narcissistic personality might be an extreme manifestation of their symptoms. It’s usually a result of what some experts call narcissistic rage.

“Often, this individual will personalize any experience that brings into question their own false beliefs,” Hardy explains. “They view differences as personal attacks and respond in ways that attempt to terrorize whoever is responsible.”

In other words, someone with vindictive narcissism may tend to feel extremely and permanently hurt by someone else’s rejection, boundaries, or contradictory behavior. In turn, they may react intensely and with a need to counteract this perceived opponent.

“That opponent is rarely a [true] opponent, but instead how the narcissist has configured them in their minds,” Hardy says.

Vindictive behavior might look different in every case. Sometimes, it might be about sabotaging another person. In other instances, it might be saying something hurtful or using something they know against the person.

The trigger for this vindictive behavior might also be different in every scenario.

Someone with narcissistic personality might react with rage after someone doesn’t give them the attention they seek, if another person gets the promotion they think they deserve, or when someone contradicts them in something they’re saying.

Or, says Hardy, “If any argument starts, they may bring up past secrets and use them against you in ways that are hurtful.”

Is everyone who does you wrong or says hurtful things during an argument a “narcissist”? Absolutely not.

As with other mental health conditions, there’s a lot more involved. Only a mental health professional can make an accurate diagnosis.

The causes of NPD, in general, aren’t well understood or established.

(Video) 10 Signs of Vindictive Narcissism

Researchers think several factors could play a role, including:

  • traumatic events
  • abandonment
  • excessive criticism from a loved one
  • abuse
  • discrimination
  • excessive pampering
  • a family history of NPD or other personality disorders
  • growing up in an individualistic culture

“Some consider narcissism to be a pathological state, along with other personality disorders, such as antisocial personality disorder and borderline psychopathy,” explains Chivonne Henry, a licensed marriage and family therapist in Miami Gardens, Florida.

In other words, Henry says, they may have low empathy for others. As a result, they can’t understand or relate to other people’s pain or how they cause it.

When someone doesn’t see a direct link between their behaviors and how other people feel, or don’t gauge those behaviors’ repercussions, they might tend to act in more vindictive ways when they feel hurt.

Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental health condition with complex cognitive and behavioral processes. It affects how you see yourself, others, and the world in general.

Someone with the condition might interpret situations in a different way and perceive them as challenging or threatening to their integrity, even when they’re not.

Underneath an apparent sense of superiority, there might also be an exaggerated need to feel approved and loved, and a vulnerable self-esteem.

In this sense, some people with NPD might experience any hint of rejection as a trigger for vindictive behavior.

These triggers could be:

  • being critiqued at work, even if constructively
  • having their opinion or experiences challenged
  • someone else getting all the attention in a given situation
  • not getting a promotion, even if they just started working at the place
  • someone not following their advice or instructions
  • a loved one developing another important relationship
  • having their boss praise someone else’s work

These actions might not be directed at the person with NPD. For example, a boss praising a co-worker doesn’t imply they think anyone else’s work is not as good.

But for someone with the disorder, this instance can be perceived as a direct threat or challenge to their own worth. This might lead them to feel the need to sabotage that co-worker who’s getting attention, for example.

Being in a relationship with someone with narcissistic personality can be challenging. It might be particularly difficult if they act in a vindictive way.

Whether they’re a friend, a co-worker, a family member, or a significant other, you might want to do a few things to protect yourself emotionally — and, occasionally, physically.

Set boundaries

“The most important way to protect yourself while in a relationship with someone who is narcissistic is to establish firm boundaries,” Hardy says. “In establishing these boundaries, it is important to firmly establish your ‘why’ and ground yourself in what you know to be true based on your values and beliefs.”

Someone with the disorder may try to challenge these boundaries or try to convince you to adjust them. Stand firm.

Any compromise you make will most likely benefit them, and that, according to Hardy, is an unhealthy compromise.

Also, consider keeping those boundaries, even when they’re “family.”

(Video) Cope with Vindictive Narcissists

Admittedly, it can be really challenging for some people to set these kinds of boundaries, especially if the person with NPD is a close family member.

“When the vindictive narcissist is a family member, we often feel an inherent obligation to remain committed to the relationship based on pre-established norms,” Hardy explains. “I often hear comments such as ‘But that’s my mom’ or ‘We always go over there during Thanksgiving.’”

But it doesn’t matter if that relationship is predetermined by genetics.

“When unsafe, these customary norms lead to further damage and perpetuate unhealthy cycles,” Hardy says.

That’s why it’s even more important that you set the terms of engagement with this person based on your own needs and safety.

Vocalize your terms or boundaries

When you set your own terms, the person with NPD has a chance to understand them and either accept them or walk away.

This is a way of playing fair and letting them know what you will or will not tolerate.

If they can’t accept your boundaries — or repeatedly challenge or combat them, especially in vindictive ways — then you can take steps to further protect yourself.

“Stand up for yourself and be assertive,” Henry says. “Do not let their disrespect of you go unchallenged. If they say hateful and disrespectful things to you, and then you do not have anything to say… you are validating their position.”

Hardy agrees: “I would recommend moving towards accepting what the relationship is not, and exploring other avenues to get similar needs met.”

And sometimes, that might mean walking away from the relationship, especially if they’re constantly acting in a way that hurts or harms you.

Don’t second-guess yourself

In some relationships with people with NPD, you might second-guess or overly question yourself. This may be because some people with narcissistic personalities may use manipulation tactics and games.

“When this occurs, there is also a tendency to lose your ‘voice’ in the relationship and always rely on their ‘better’ judgment,” Hardy says. “This has devastating repercussions on one’s confidence and self-esteem.”

Try not to internalize

When a person is acting vindictively, they might say things that seek to define you in a certain way. “You’re so weak” or “You’re always imagining stuff,” for example.

Consider reminding yourself that they’re hurt and perhaps trying to hurt you, too, due to how they inaccurately perceive a situation as threatening.

It’s important that you don’t internalize these hurtful comments or assume responsibility for their behavior.

How they act is never your fault — no matter what they might say to shift the blame.

Remember, they have a condition that might distort the way they interpret your behavior or any given situation.

Shelter from their anger

This one can be quite challenging, especially if they say something hurtful toward you. But it’s important.

“Limit attempts to ‘prove them wrong’ during fits of anger,” Hardy says.

You might feel what they’re saying is incorrect. It might be so. But someone with NPD may not ever admit to it. Trying to convince them could simply result in an escalation of the conflict.

In addition, your own anger won’t serve any useful purpose.

If they say something hurtful or mean to you, don’t respond with an insult or hurtful statement back at them, Henry says.

(Video) Vindictive Narcissism

“Sometimes the only appropriate response is to quietly remove yourself from the situation and not engage in a response,” she adds.

Develop a safety plan

As in any situation where violence may arise, having a safety plan in place is highly advisable.

“A vindictive narcissist is not always physically violent,” Hardy says. “Although they may have exploitative behavior or extreme responses to certain experiences, this does not always mean they will physically assault you.”

However, if they do harm you — or threaten to — it might be a good idea to develop a plan to leave the relationship safely.

“None of us has the right to carry out violence or be violent with someone else,” Hardy says.

If you’re unsure of how to leave your relationship, reach out to the National Domestic Violence Hotline by calling 800-799-SAFE, or chat with them online.

Consider asking for help

It’s natural to feel confused about leaving a relationship with what some people might call “a vindictive narcissist.” For you, they’re a friend or a loved one.

It’s OK, however, to seek help and emotional support to cope with what is going on in your relationships.

Consider talking with other friends and family members about what you’re going through.

You might also want to consider seeking the support of a mental health professional yourself.

“Being in a relationship with someone who is narcissistic can be extremely challenging and difficult,” Hardy says. “Without clear and consistent boundaries, the psychological impact can be detrimental to your long-term social and emotional health.”

A counselor, therapist, or other mental healthcare professional can help you develop practical tips to cope with your emotions and the relationship.

“Even after a relationship ends, the residual effects can have long-standing ramifications,” Hardy says.

This is why you might also want to seek support after and if you decide to leave.

Suggest they seek help

Therapy does have the potential to help someone with NPD change how they relate to others and themselves.

It can also help lessen their chances of developing other mental health conditions, including:

  • anxiety disorder
  • depression
  • substance use disorder

Be prepared to accept if they don’t follow your suggestion, though.

Research indicates that people with NPD might have a difficult time becoming aware of their behaviors or seeking help. Some don’t stay in therapy long enough to lead to long-term changes, too.

This is why it’s a good idea to focus on supporting your own mental health.

Being in a relationship with someone with NPD can be challenging. It can be even more difficult if they have an extreme — or vindictive — tendency.

(Video) The Vindictive Narcissist - Why They Want to Hurt you! SL Coaching

Even when this is the case, though, it’s never a personal choice they make. They live with a mental health condition that may distort the way they interpret the world and themselves.

This doesn’t mean you have to accept behaviors that may hurt or harm you. Setting firm boundaries, avoiding escalation, and walking away from the relationship might be steps to consider.


What is vindictive narcissism? ›

They view differences as personal attacks and respond in ways that attempt to terrorize whoever is responsible.” In other words, someone with vindictive narcissism may tend to feel extremely and permanently hurt by someone else's rejection, boundaries, or contradictory behavior.

How do you deal with a vindictive person? ›

Coping with vindictiveness in your relationship
  1. Set boundaries. ...
  2. Vocalize your terms or boundaries. ...
  3. Don't second-guess yourself. ...
  4. Try not to internalize. ...
  5. Shelter from their anger. ...
  6. Develop a safety plan. ...
  7. Consider asking for help. ...
  8. Suggest they seek help.

How do you cope with narcissism? ›

  1. Educate yourself about NPD. ...
  2. Build your self-esteem. ...
  3. Speak up for yourself. ...
  4. Set clear boundaries. ...
  5. Practice skills to keep calm. ...
  6. Find a support system. ...
  7. Insist on immediate action, not promises. ...
  8. Understand that a narcissistic person may need professional help.

What is vindictive behavior examples? ›

A person described as vindictive is usually someone who holds a grudge and who always tries to get back at people who they think have wronged them in some way. Vindictive people retaliate against others for any insult or perceived slight. Vindictive people do not let things go.

What is the example of vindictive? ›

Vindictiveness is a strong desire to get back at someone. People who hold grudges and seek revenge are full of vindictiveness. If someone steps on your toe, and you put on boots to stomp back, you're full of vindictiveness.

What words not to say to a narcissist? ›

8 Things You Should Never Say to a Narcissist
  • Don't say, "It's not about you." ...
  • Don't say, "You're not listening." ...
  • Don't say, "Ina Garten did not get her lasagna recipe from you." ...
  • Don't say, "Do you think it might be your fault?" ...
  • Don't say, "You're being a bully." ...
  • Don't say, "Stop playing the victim."
Dec 15, 2017

What is the best way to disarm a narcissist? ›

12 Ways to Disarming a Narcissist
  1. Build your self-esteem.
  2. Be calm.
  3. Don't feed their ego.
  4. Don't take responsibility for their actions.
  5. Don't give them attention.
  6. Don't give negative attention.
  7. Control your emotions.
  8. Set clear boundaries.
Apr 5, 2022

What causes vindictive behavior? ›

Jealousy, insecurities, and negative thoughts.

Vindictive people experience this drive because of their insecurities and low self-esteem. As a matter of fact, sometimes, just seeing others succeed stirs up frustration in them and a desire to hurt.

What personality type is vindictive? ›

“Vindictive” refers more to how someone with the disorder may act in some situations. A vindictive behavior in someone with narcissistic personality might be an extreme manifestation of their symptoms. It's usually a result of what some experts call narcissistic rage.

Is vindictiveness a mental disorder? ›

But oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) includes a frequent and ongoing pattern of anger, irritability, arguing and defiance toward parents and other authority figures. ODD also includes being spiteful and seeking revenge, a behavior called vindictiveness.

How does a narcissist react when they can't control you? ›

Narcissists also gaslight or practice master manipulation, weakening and destabilizing their victims; finally, they utilize positive and negative emotions or moments to trick others. When a narcissist can't control you, they'll likely feel threatened, react with anger, and they might even start threatening you.

How do you mentally let a narcissist go? ›

  1. Go no-contact—absolutely no-contact.
  2. Just go. No lingering goodbyes.
  3. Consider blocking common friends.
  4. Write down why you left.
  5. Assume that the narcissist will move on quickly.
  6. Give yourself time to grieve.
  7. Keep yourself busy.
  8. Copyright 2016 Sarkis Media. stephaniesarkis.com.
Jun 16, 2016

How do you mentally break a narcissist? ›

12 Ways to Break a Narcissist's Heart
  1. 1 Ignore their forms of manipulation.
  2. 2 Flaunt how happy you are without them.
  3. 3 Set boundaries to protect yourself.
  4. 4 Deny them what they want.
  5. 5 Stay calm when they try to upset you.
  6. 6 Cut off all contact with them if you can.
  7. 7 Be leery of future love bombing.

What are vindictive traits? ›

A person described as vindictive is usually someone who holds a grudge and who always tries to get back at people who they think have wronged them in some way. Vindictive people retaliate against others for any insult or perceived slight. Vindictive people do not let things go.

What is the best definition of vindictive? ›

: disposed to seek revenge : vengeful. : intended for or involving revenge. : intended to cause anguish or hurt : spiteful. vindictively adverb.

What is a vindictive person called? ›

cruel, malicious, merciless, resentful, retaliatory, ruthless, spiteful, unforgiving, vengeful, avenging, grim, grudging, implacable, malignant, rancorous, relentless, unrelenting, venomous.

How do you prove vindictiveness? ›

Actual prosecutorial vindictiveness requires the defendant to produce objective evidence showing that the prosecutor intended his actions punish a defendant for asserting a right.

What are three synonyms for vindictive? ›

synonyms for vindictive
  • cruel.
  • malicious.
  • merciless.
  • resentful.
  • retaliatory.
  • ruthless.
  • spiteful.
  • unforgiving.

What is the most narcissistic thing to say? ›

"You're a bad person." "Nobody else will ever love you." "I'm the best you'll ever have." "Have fun being alone for the rest of your life."

How do you shut down a narcissist in an argument? ›

Here are the steps you should take:
  1. Don't argue about 'right' and 'wrong' ...
  2. Instead, try to empathise with their feelings. ...
  3. Use 'we' language. ...
  4. Don't expect an apology. ...
  5. Ask about a topic that interests them. ...
  6. Don't take the bait yourself. ...
  7. Remember to put yourself first.
Feb 11, 2018

What is the best response to a narcissist? ›

Narcissists don't take constructive criticism well, Manly says. Try to make comments in careful, positive ways. Stay calm. Try not to react if they try to pick a fight or gaslight you (making you doubt your own reality).

What are typical narcissistic responses? ›

Narcissistic personality disorder involves a pattern of self-centered, arrogant thinking and behavior, a lack of empathy and consideration for other people, and an excessive need for admiration. Others often describe people with NPD as cocky, manipulative, selfish, patronizing, and demanding.

How do you respond to a narcissist gaslighting? ›

Here are eight tips for responding and taking back control.
  1. First, make sure it's gaslighting. ...
  2. Take some space from the situation. ...
  3. Collect evidence. ...
  4. Speak up about the behavior. ...
  5. Remain confident in your version of events. ...
  6. Focus on self-care. ...
  7. Involve others. ...
  8. Seek professional support.

What is the difference between spiteful and vindictive? ›

synonym study for spiteful

Revengeful implies a deep, powerful, and continued intent to repay a wrong: a fierce and revengeful spirit. Vindictive does not imply action necessarily, but stresses the unforgiving nature of the avenger: a vindictive look.

Is vindictive same as revenge? ›

The given word Vindictive means having or showing a strong or unreasoning desire for revenge. This word is completely related to the action of getting revenge or a person who is revengeful.

Does vindictive mean resentful? ›

unwilling or unable to forgive or show mercy. adjective. showing malicious ill will and a desire to hurt; motivated by spite. “a vindictive man will look for occasions for resentment” synonyms: despiteful, malignant, spiteful malicious.

Which personality type is the unhappiest? ›

Sadly, INFPs ranked the lowest for happiness as well as the lowest for life-satisfaction. According to the third edition of the MBTI® Manual, these types also ranked second highest in dissatisfaction with their marriages and intimate relationships.

Which personality type gets irritated easily? ›

The ISFP. These types tend to have varying responses to anger. According to the MBTI® Manual, they are the type most likely to get angry and show it, as well as the type most likely to get angry and not show it. This goes to show that no two people of the same type are exactly alike.

What personality type is always the victim? ›

Narcissistic personality disorder and the victim mentality

Research from 2003 suggests that people high in narcissism may see themselves as victims of interpersonal transgressions more often than people not living with the disorder.

Are covert narcissists vindictive? ›

A covert narcissist may become defensive easily and react in a passive-aggressive or vindictive way.

What happens when a narcissist gets angry? ›

This rage may take the form of screaming and yelling. Selective silence and passive-aggressive avoidance can also happen with narcissistic rage. Most episodes of narcissistic rage exist on a behavior continuum. On one end, a person may be aloof and withdrawn.

What happens when a narcissist knows you figured them out? ›

When a narcissist is exposed or when the narcissist knows you have figured him out, they will never admit the truth even if it is staring them in the face. A narcissist will lay several false accusations and try to make him right. They will say things you didn't utter and misinterpret all your intentions.

When a narcissist realizes you refuse to be controlled? ›

When a narcissist realizes your refusal to be controlled, they panic because their demands are no longer met. They'll become coercive, manipulative and potentially aggressive. On the other hand, they might become superficially charming to lure you back in before they start controlling you again.

What is the pain of letting go of a narcissist? ›

Leaving a narcissist is similar to breaking a heroin addiction. It is painful and difficult, but in the end, you get your life back. In order to get yourself through the hardest parts of the initial break, you must allow yourself to experience the discomfort and anxiety, and let yourself grieve your loss.

How do you emotionally break free from a narcissist? ›

The 4 Keys to Finally Break Free From a Narcissist's Abuse
  1. Recognize that you are being abused. Recognizing that you are being abused is the first step to breaking free from narcissist abuse. ...
  2. Reach out for support. ...
  3. Build your self-esteem. ...
  4. Create a safe exit plan.
Jul 5, 2022

What happens when you let a narcissist go? ›

Narcissists hate losing their supply of attention, so they won't let you go easily. Prepare for them to promise "to change." They might suddenly start doing things for you that you'd been complaining about. They may say "you'll be lost without me," or "you'll never find someone like me." Don't listen, Orloff advises.

Is ignoring a narcissist the best revenge? ›

Does ignoring a narcissist work? First of all, narcissists hate being ignored, so ignoring them may be the best form of revenge. But, it should not be your primary motivation. The most essential thing here is to be mature enough to let go of toxic individuals in your life, no matter how difficult it is.

Do narcissists get heartbroken? ›

While people with narcissism aren't devoid of emotions, their motivations may be self-focused. They can know they're hurting your feelings, but as long as it elevates their status, they may not care. Someone living with narcissism does cry. They can feel regret, remorse, and sadness.

How do you tell if you are a victim of a narcissist? ›

You know you're suffering from narcissistic abuse victim syndrome if you have the following symptoms:
  1. Always Walking On Egg Shells. ...
  2. Sense of Mistrust. ...
  3. Self-Isolation. ...
  4. Loss of Self Worth. ...
  5. Feeling Lonely. ...
  6. Freezing Up. ...
  7. Trouble Making Decisions. ...
  8. Feeling Like You've Done Something Wrong.
Dec 23, 2020

What are narcissist weaknesses? ›

A monumental weakness in the narcissist is the failure to look internally and flesh out what needs to be worked on. Then, of course, the next step is to spend time improving. The narcissist sabotages any possibility of looking deep within.

What do narcissist want? ›

Narcissists want to have their own way. They tend to be rule-oriented and controlling. They are inflexible. It benefits narcissists to have partners who are willing to go with the flow and not make a big deal over anything, ever.

What does vindictive behavior mean? ›

: disposed to seek revenge : vengeful. : intended for or involving revenge. : intended to cause anguish or hurt : spiteful. vindictively adverb. vindictiveness noun.

What are the 4 types of narcissism? ›

Experts work with five main types of narcissism: overt, covert, communal, antagonistic, and malignant narcissism. They can all affect how you see yourself and interact with others. When it comes to treatment, narcissism can be tricky because many people living with it don't necessarily feel the need to change.

What causes a vindictive personality? ›

Vindictive people experience this drive because of their insecurities and low self-esteem. As a matter of fact, sometimes, just seeing others succeed stirs up frustration in them and a desire to hurt. Lack of empathy and difficulty managing emotions.

What is the difference between vindictive and spiteful? ›

synonym study for spiteful

Revengeful implies a deep, powerful, and continued intent to repay a wrong: a fierce and revengeful spirit. Vindictive does not imply action necessarily, but stresses the unforgiving nature of the avenger: a vindictive look.

What are the 5 main habits of a narcissist? ›

Common Narcissist Characteristics
  • Inflated Ego.
  • Lack of Empathy.
  • Need for Attention.
  • Repressed Insecurities.
  • Few Boundaries.

Does narcissism get worse with age? ›

Summary: For most people, narcissism wanes as they age. A new study reports the magnitude of the decline of narcissistic traits is tied to specific career and personal relationship choices. However, this is not true for everyone.

What types of mental illness is narcissism? ›

Narcissistic personality disorder is a mental health condition in which people have an unreasonably high sense of their own importance. They need and seek too much attention and want people to admire them. People with this disorder may lack the ability to understand or care about the feelings of others.

How do I deal with a vindictive narcissist ex husband? ›

10 Strategies for Dealing with Your Narcissistic Ex
  1. Realize they wont change. ...
  2. Remember a divorce happened. ...
  3. Schedule responses. ...
  4. Answer only what is asked. ...
  5. Dont tolerate any abusive behavior. ...
  6. Appreciate the silence. ...
  7. Use the hamburger method when something is needed. ...
  8. Limit interactions.
Mar 24, 2018


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